Data sourced from Twitter and Facebook and includes manager names, local language spellings of manager names (Akira Nishino = 西野 朗) and variants on manager names including surname hashtags (#Southgate).
So that the Sentiment analysis was not skewed by schadenfreude, posts were tracked based on the language of the user. In other words only England fans were tracked for mentions of Gareth Southgate and only German fans were tracked for mentions of Joachim Löw. This reduces the volume of social posts for greater accuracy of sentiment analysis.
World Cup data runs from 14th June 2018 – 15th July 2018.
UEFA Nations League data runs from 5th of September 2018 – 12th of September 2018.
Due to AI language limitations, there is no sentiment analysis available for: Croatia, Norway, Iceland, Serbia, Tunisia, Poland, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Morocco. As such they have regrettably been excluded from this research.